网络孔子学院

中国画欣赏新译 8  (2012-02-01 16:46)

5    中国画的用光
5 Chinese paintings of light
一位大画家曾说过,一位美术家的重要性,是由他引入美术语言中创新符号数量的多寡决定的。中国古典绘画中的光,大都是表现明暗分布的。现代中国画中的光,不仅表现明暗分布,而且成为刻画形象、突出主题、表现画家情感的新艺术语言。现代中国画家的这种创造,对中国画的革新与发展功不可没。对此我们必须给予足够的重视。
A great artist once said, the importance of an artists, he is by the introduction of innovation in the language of art the size of the number of symbols of the decision。 Chinese classical painting in the light, most of the distribution of brightness performance。 Modern Chinese Painting in the light, not only brightness distribution, and a portrait image, prominent theme, emotional performance artists of the new artistic language。 The modern Chinese painters such creation, the innovation of Chinese Painting and development achievements can not be ignored。 We must give them adequate attention。
王履《华山图画》   Wang Li, "Huashan picture。"
明初画家元履以自然为师,所作<华山图》册页四十幅,皆由写生观察得来,光感甚强,故山石明亮坚实,气势雄伟;而冷谦的《白岳图》纯用下:笔焦墨擦出的山石。明暗分明,光感显著,尢其画幅中部树林的顶稍留出光亮部位,与山石白云亮部协调统一,深得自然光影之妙  浙派画家继承南宋水墨苍劲的画法,全以大斧劈及拖泥带水皴勾斫,多近块的造型,放山头每出现明显的光感。试看张平山的《山雨欲来图》上部的山峰, 竟有类似逆光的感觉,更属奇特。吴派画家唐寅十分注重画的明度,如《深山伴侣》中的山石,明部过渡自然、暗部对比强烈、调子准确,显得整幅画面明媚动人,非对光的明度有深入观察不能表现至此。清代力倡革新的石涛,所作山水极有创意,并且“搜尽奇峰打草稿”,努力表现对自然景物的真切感受、其画山石每留出空白面,而在山顶和山脚用浓墨衬托,显得光洁明净,水墨淋漓,画面中山水更得光影微妙之趣。他的《搜尽奇峰图卷》 和《双清阁图卷》中,对树林的光影表现更是奇妙之至、在中国画“用光”史上值得大笔一书的是金陵八家之首的龚贤—其作品墨韵深厚、层次丰富,在乌黑亮泽中迫出强烈的—)亡感。
Early Ming painter yuan to Li for the natural division, made by the <Huashan picture "of the 40-page booklet, in the observation of them paint, very strong sense of light, the bright solid rocks, the magnificent momentum, while the" Baiyue picture "with pure Under: Stroke at a depth of the shades together to make Mose to the rocks。 Shading clear, light feeling significantly, particularly in Central Picture woods just to stay top of the site to light, bright white clouds and rocks Department of harmonization, won the wonders of the natural lighting of Zhejiang painter inherited the ancient "Southern Song Dynasty," during the Cangjin ink paintings Law, and all the big Fupi Tuonidaishui Cun hook Zhuo, and more recent pieces of modeling, every hill-a clear sense of light。 Let us look at Zhang Ping Shan "when it rains in the mountains to the picture" of the upper peaks, the total of similar backlight feeling, even more peculiar。 Miss Tang Yin painter painting a lot of importance on the lightness, such as "deep partnership" in the mountains and rocks, that the transitional nature of the dark contrast of the strong, accurate tone, it is moving whole screen was bright, non-brightness light of the observation can not have an in-depth performance this。 Shi Tao Li Chang Qing Dynasty innovation, the landscape is very creative, and "search all the strange peaks to the outline of a painting," to the nature of the performance of real feelings, every painting rocks remain a blank face, and on the Peak And the foot with Nongmo background, it is bright and clean reduces noise reduction resulting in ink Lin Li, the screen in landscape lighting in the more delicate of Fun。 His "search all the strange peaks plans volumes" and "double-Club plans volumes", the lighting performance of the woods is wonderful all due, in Chinese Painting "used up" worthy of the history of the book is huge, "the Tombs of eight "summit - Gong Xian - his works ink flavor deep, rich levels, in black Liangze in forcing strong -) dead feeling。
对林木及点景物的渲染也常显出光的神秘,对后人颇多启迪;需要指出的是,晚清随西方教会进来的所谓传教土画家,如郎世宁、艾启蒙等,他们基本上是用中国画的工具和题材形式画西洋画,画面全按西洋透视明暗关系刻刨,所作无论花鸟动物或人物风景,都是典型的“素描加勾线”式的画法,因其缺少笔墨气韵和情趣,缺乏中国画的传统气质,故亦与本文试图建立之“用光”系统无涉。综上所述,传统中国绘画中,历代都不乏对光有所观察和表现的画家或作品,尽管这些表现大都是无意识的,而臣程度上与我们现代人对光的观察和理解差别甚大,但也可证明“光”作为绘画上二不可或缺的一种因素,在我国千百年来的绘画实践中确已普遍地存在着,并对我国绘画的发展进步有着不容忽视的作用。 
Forest and the point of rendering features often demonstrate the mysterious light, a lot of inspiration for future generations; needs to be pointed out that the late Qing Dynasty with the Western Church entered the so-called missionary territories artists, such as Lang Shining, the Enlightenment, such as Viagra, they basically Chinese painting is the subject of painting tools and Western painting, Western perspective on the whole screen brightness relations carved shaver, animals or birds and flowers made by both figures landscapes, are a typical "hook and line drawings" type of painting, because of their lack of ink Qiyun And interest, the lack of traditional Chinese painting temperament, Guyi with this attempt to create "light" system-free。 In sum, traditional Chinese painting in the past have had no lack of light observation and performance artists or works, although these are mostly unconscious performance, and Robinson extent with our modern light of observation and understanding vary widely, But can also prove that the "light" on the painting as an indispensable factor in China for thousands of years the painting is indeed universal practice exists, and the development and progress of China's paintings have the effect can not be ignored。
中国画以线条为主要造型手段,特别是自宋元以来,文入画家一直“以水墨为上”,把光色放在次要位置,而且光与色又处于分离状态,所以有人误认为:“中国画却是线的韵律。光不要了,影也不要了。”其实,画面上如果没有光,便一片漆黑,那叫什幺画呢?所以宋代的韩拙说:“笔以立其形质,墨以分其阴阳。”清代沈宗骞进一步指出:“画之色,非丹铅青绛之谓,乃在浓淡明晦之间。”“阴阳”、“明晦”中的“阳”、“明”指的就是光,只是中国画家对光色的认识是哲学的、经验的罢了。因此,中国画家没有原生影、派生影、全明暗、全色彩等概念,而是把画面上的光分成正面光、固定光、平面光等。现代中国画家受到现代哲学、现代科学与现代人审美要求的影响,其画面上对于光的处理发生了巨大的变化,在保留部分中国人审美习惯的同时,又大胆突破正面光、固定光、平面光的束缚,创造了新的光色语言。用强光、顶光、开光取代正面光。所谓正面光,就是光线从正面平射到物象上。正面是阳,是受光面;背面是阴,是背光面。正面光的表现源于道家思想。
Chinese paintings to form lines as the main means, especially since the Song and Yuan Dynasties, the text of the painter had been "to ink for" the light color on a secondary position, but also light and color in a state of separation, so some people mistakenly believe that: " Chinese painting is of the rhythm。 Do not light, the shadow will not。 "In fact, if there is no light on the painting, then a dark, be called a picture of how it? Therefore, Song Han Zhuo said: "brush to stand up Campaign-based, the depth of color ink used to distinguish between East and West and North-South backlit by the smooth surface, and so on。 "Zong Qing Qian further said:" The color paintings, non-lead Dan Jiang Qing of that is in the shades between the Hui "he said。" Yin and Yang "," Ming Hui "in the" Yang "and" Ming "refers to the light, only light colored Chinese painters is the philosophy of knowledge, the experience only。 Therefore, the Chinese Health and video artists do not have the original, derivative video, full brightness, color, and so the whole concept, but the light on the screen is divided into positive light, light fixed, flat light, and so on。 By modern Chinese painters of modern philosophy, modern science and modern aesthetic requirements of the affected, the light on the screen for the treatment has undergone enormous changes, while retaining some of the habits of the Chinese aesthetic, and bold breakthrough in positive light, fixed-plane The shackles of light, creating a new light-color language。 With bright lights, roof light, to replace Kai-positive light。 The so-called positive light, is light images from the front-Shedao on。 Yang is positive, is subject to smooth; back of the Yam, is backlit face。 Positive light from the performance of Taoism。
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